Jail Population Information System (JPIS)Overview
The Michigan Jail Population Information System was developed as a means to gather standardized information on jail utilization and demographics from county jails throughout the State. JPIS is the product of a cooperative effort among the Michigan Department of Corrections, Office of Community Corrections, County Jail Services Section and the Michigan Sheriff's Association, with assistance from Michigan State University and the National Institute of Corrections. While it was never intended that JPIS would have all the information contained at each individual reporting site, specifications called for the capture of data on individual demographics, primary offense, known criminal history and information related to arrest, conviction, sentencing, and release.
Mission and Concept
The primary purpose of the statewide Jail Population Information System is to provide the ability to monitor and evaluate jail population characteristics for use in policy planning. As a statewide database, it is sufficiently flexible to enable the system to be compatible with existing jail management and MIS systems in each county. Originally developed as a mainframe process, the JPIS system was later rewritten to run in MDOC's client/server environment gathering monthly files and returning error summaries and analytical reports.
JPIS is a means to gather a subset of the information which already resides on individual jail management systems, with each county running a monthly extract process to generate a standard file. The primary approach has always been to promote the adoption, enhancement and proper use of local data systems. In turn, the local system provides the foundation to extract the optimum of usable data for the JPIS extract, which should be viewed as a logical by-product of local data capture.
History and Impact
The locally-centered approach taken for JPIS development has had a substantial impact on the utilization of local jail management systems throughout the State. When JPIS requirements were first implemented, over half the counties in Michigan did not have functional automated jail management systems, and objective inmate risk classification was in its infancy. Now, all the counties have automated systems, with nearly every county having transmitted electronic data files to the central JPIS system. Similarly, the JPIS requirement for standardized classification of offenders has been a major factor in the adoption of objective offender classification processes and procedures throughout the State.
Use of JPIS Data
Currently, the monthly edit error reports returned to the counties, based upon individual incoming files, include summaries of admissions, releases and a snapshot of inmates still unreleased at month-end. In addition, counts are given for the ten most commonly occurring arrest and conviction charges. These reports enhance capabilities to review each monthly submission for accuracy.
Since 1998, detailed reports based upon accumulated JPIS master data have been transmitted to each Sheriff's department and CCAB. The reports cover cumulative data for the current calendar year, as well as full-year data for the preceding year. The associated tables include such categories as average daily population for the jail, releases and lengths of stay for offenders. In addition, there is summary data on security classification, most frequently occurring arrest charges and on target populations for community corrections programs. Local officials are given the opportunity to provide feedback on the accuracy and completeness of their data submissions, as reflected in the reports. The reports provide a primary means for review of JPIS statistics with the counties to isolate and correct data problems not readily identified by routine file editing. As additional data problems are identified and resolved, the quality and confidence in the reports increase.
Local Data Systems and JPIS
Michigan counties employ a wide variety of electronic jail management packages which vary in nature based upon jail size and local requirements for data collection. These applications include both custom-written systems and packages purchased from outside vendors. On a statewide basis, it is a very dynamic environment, with regular hardware and software upgrades at individual sites - and not infrequently - switches to entirely different jail management packages. This evolving vendor landscape presents some unique data-gathering challenges, as even the most conscientious counties periodically deal with jail management software issues that disrupt both local operations and JPIS data submissions.
JPIS Data System Enhancements
The Office of Community Corrections continues to review, update and streamline the overall JPIS data reporting requirements to maximize the use of the system. The efforts to streamline JPIS reporting are expected to contribute toward the goal of providing additional outputs to benefit both the state and local jurisdictions. The focus continues to be upon gathering the most critical data elements from all counties, as monthly reporting is expanded to make maximum use of the available data for analysis purposes and local feedback.
JPIS Data Reporting Status
Even though several counties do not have active Community Corrections Advisory Boards and do not receive community corrections funding, the counties submitting JPIS data to OCC have accounted for over 92% of statewide jail beds during CY 2004 and CY 2005. However, due to local vendor problems, the data only accounted for 84.2% of the jail beds in 2007. At any given time, a number of counties will be working to resolve local data system issues which may also affect their capability to submit JPIS data. Technical assistance is provided by OCC where appropriate, and every attempt is made to recover any missed monthly data once problems are resolved. OCC will continue to provide technical support to maximize the collection and aggregation of local jail data on a statewide basis.
Impact of System Enhancements
As changes and improvements to corrections-related data systems continue to be refined, the overall ability to monitor jail utilization by priority target groups of offenders continues to improve. Areas in which data system enhancements have an impact include:
1. An expanded capability to identify target groups in jails and link to other data sources.
The streamlined Jail Population Information System requirements are aimed at improving the ability to identify target populations among sentenced and unsentenced felons. The adoption of the JPIS enhancements by software vendors and local jails provides an expanding capability to link felony disposition data to jail population data.
2. Improved recognition of any data reporting problems.
Expanded editing and feedback routines in the JPIS system help to simplify the process of monitoring data content and isolating problems in vendor software or local data collection practices which may adversely impact data quality. Expanded feedback on individual file submission enables local entities to promptly identify and address potential problems.
Jail Population Information System Reports Data Explanation
JPIS - CY2010
JPIS - CY2009
JPIS - CY2008
JPIS - CY2007
JPIS - CY2006